Fatty acid (fatty acid) refers to the long aliphatic hydrocarbon chain containing a carboxyl group at one end, which is an organic substance, the general formula of straight chain saturated fatty acid is C(n)H(2n+ 1)COOH, the lower fatty acid is colorless liquid with pungent smell, the higher fatty acid is waxy solid, with no obvious smell.
Fatty acids are the most prevalent components of triglycerides and phospholipids and may constitute over 4 g in an average egg. Egg fatty acids are of different chain lengths varying from 14 to 22 carbons and of different degrees of saturation as well as different configurations. Egg fatty acids include saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids and omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). A list of some of the common fatty acids in egg yolk with their systemic names, shorthand notations and concentrations is shown in Table 16.3. Several factors influence the fatty acid composition of egg including the hen’s ration, strain, age and the storage and cooking methods employed. However, diet is the major determinant of yolk fatty acid composition.
Fatty acids are an important source of energy for muscle, kidney, and liver tissue. The term “free fatty acid” (FFA) usually refers to long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) that are in the unesterified state. They are also sometimes referred to as unesterified fatty acids, or non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs). The LCFAs in plasma are bound to serum albumin, and inside cells they are attached to a FA binding protein (or Z protein). Consequently, they are seldom free, and are usually in lipoprotein form. As previously discussed, short- and medium-chain fatty acids (SCFAs and MCFAs) are more water-soluble, and therefore are less likely to be combined with protein.
1. Used in food
Added to the fat or protein drinks, can significantly improve the stability and dispersion of beverages, improve the quality of canned drinks, extended shelf life, resulting in good taste, stable performance, good heat resistance products.
2. Used in cosmetics
Fatty acid can be used for various cosmetics, such as facial cleanser, soap, bath liquid, shampoo, lipstick and so on. It has low irritation and high safety and can remarkably improve product quality.
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